Archive for ‘Bibliography’

March 9, 2012

Notes on Designing Interfaces

Notes from the O’Reilly book Designing Social Interfaces: Principles Patterns and Practices

Crumlish, Christian. 2009. Designing social interfaces : [principles, patterns, and practices for improving the user experience]. Beijing ;Cambridge: O’Reilly Media.

SOCIAL MEDIA (8, 9, 11)
social media is “media that is created, filtered, engaged with, and remixed socially” (8)

“Social media collectively refers to content… that is generated by the community of users for consumption within the same community” (9, Harjeet Gulati)

The idea of patterns for designing interface is describes this way “The notion of having a suite of reusable building blocks to inform and help designers develop their sites and applications has gained traction within the interaction design community as the demands for web and mobile interfaces have become more complex.” (11)

The idea of leaving elements or the social site structure incomplete is described this way “One of the key differences between designing a social environment online and designing a traditional media-style, broadcast-oriented content site is that the design of a social community online cannot be entirely predetermined.”
“This principle finds form in a number of familiar concepts: customization, skinning, user contributed tags, and the emergent folksonomies they can give rise to.”
“we create open space rather than filled-in labyrinths.”(17)

Understand that in order to interact with your system users must have an understanding or mental model of what they are interacting with (19)

“Strict Versus Fluid Taxonomies: Part of leaving the design unfinished involves determining which elements to nail down and which to leave more free-form.”

“Literally, a palimpsest is a manuscript… that has been overwritten at least once, with the earlier text only partially erased and obscured… The word has also been used as a metaphor to describe any place that reveals its own history.”

“Talk Like A Person: Bear in mind as well that the writing on your site or in your application is a key part of the user interface. Call it web copy, nomenclature, and labels if you like, but it’s as much a part of the UI as the buttons, windows, and sliders.”

Use a conversational tone that fits the attitude and personality of your users but do not take it too far. Also consider using questions as a way to suggest or call to action. Also the use of third or first person “my” for example should be used with intentionality expressing either possession or attention to the larger community/activity. Consistency is important with that naming of “my stuff”, “your stuff”, or “Bill’s stuff”. (26-34)

If you are using email give people a way to respond in email. You can also reengage users through a reoccurring e-mail. “The email should contain a very clear call to action.”

GAMES (37)
Good quote for games:
“Games are among the oldest “social interfaces.” The rules and tokens of a game provide a set of affordances and an environment in which people interact.”

Sign-up or Registration (45-49)
“Collect other information only as necessary for a compelling experience.”
“Require registration at the last possible moment in the users’ process of exploring”
“Allow use of a non unique nickname (email) to reflect back to the user and for communication between the system and user.” “Consider skipping the entire registration form and allow users to sign up with… Facebook Connect”

Sign In – Sign Out(53, 56)
“Provide a clear way to retrieve the username if it is forgotten.” “Provide a clear way to retrieve the password if it is forgotten.”
“Consider providing a landing page that clearly indicates that the user is no longer signed in.”

Invitations (58)
“A user receives an invitation from a friend or connection to join a site”
“A user sends an invitation to a friend or group of friends asking them to join in a site experience”

Onboarding (70-72)
“That process of helping people get started is called onboarding
“…a large bubble tells her exactly what to do next: ‘Create your firstpost!’. In actuality, there are a dozen things she could do from here, but the guide is making a decision for her. By limiting the user’s focus–”
Also consider the idea of a “Welcome Area”

PHATIC COMMUNICATION (122, 124)*****************
“Describing a continuum of phatic messages: “These messages are: 1. I exist. 2. I’m ok. 3. You exist. 4. You’re ok. 5. The channel is open. 6. The network exists. 7. The network is active. 8. The network is flowing.”

“phatic communication, the sounds and grunts of acknowledgment we make to remind one another that we exist.”

ONLINE PRESENCE (123, 128, 134)
“A Brief History of Online Presence: …1. a persistent “place” online where a business or project can be found…
2. a blog, for instance, can create an ongoing sense of a person…the blogger is actively “present” in that space and can be found there.
3. …one is currently online and available for communication; this is present not in a physical sense but in an availability sense. This is synchronous, real-time presence, to be distinguished from the asynchronous sense of #1 and #2.” (123)

“online, available, and open to contact.”
“four typical use cases for online presence indicators: • A person wants to determine whether his friend is online. • A person wants to see who is available for contact. • A person wants to see whether his friend is available for communication. • A person wants to show his contacts that he is busy.” (128)

The concept of a Buddy List is a “list of people a user wants to keep track of” (134)

“Thinking about time as part of designing conversation systems is a critical consideration when deciding what type of communication tool to add to your social framework.”
“participating in the conversation when it is convenient.”
tools which are synchronous “rely on all participants being present and engaged at the same time”

“The primary principle to bear in mind when designing presence interfaces is to maximize opportunities for your users to declare themselves present to one another (similar to leaving footprints or other human traces)”
“a few actions that the user or system can take: • Publishing presence information • Displaying current presence status • Displaying a timeline of recent presence items • Maintaining a history (partial or complete) of past presence declarations • Providing users with a way to subscribe to presence updates • Providing users with a way to filter presence updates”

“User Gallery: Another technique for signaling the transient presence of other visitors” (149)

“Activity Streams: the idea of at least maintaining a stream of recent history and then possibly mixing status reports with other snapshots of online activity has taken hold as a way of displaying presence.”

“An activity stream (or feed) may therefore consist of an aggregation of updates and activities that together can create a much richer sense of what the user has been doing, thinking about, and saying in the recent past”

“Statuscasting: Statuscasting is the custom of broadcasting an ongoing stream of status updates to the public or to a set of contacts or followers.”

“Microblogging allows users to create short posts. These are often aggregated into a stream and can consist of text, pictures, or video.
“post onto other services”
“Provide a method for viewing once posted. Both an author view and a community view should be available.” (138)
“Allow users to filter items by date, Allow users to search or browse by date or tags, Freshness: Show items by newest item first as a default” (250)

UPDATES (139, 342)
“Updates: Updates provide people with mini stories about what their connections and others are doing on the Net”
“Users want to see what their friends have been doing presented in a convenient format.”
Users should be able to “Opt-in” or have “Disclosure” when broadcasting updates
“These updates can serve as reminders to other users about what is possible within the system.”(139)
“Recommendations push objects toward people rather than relying on them to be passively discovered.” (342)

AMBIENT INTIMACY (146-147)*****************
“Ambient intimacy is about being able to keep in touch with people with a level of regularity and intimacy that you wouldn’t usually have access to, because time and space conspire to make it impossible.

“Ambient describes the lightness, the atmospheric, non directional, and distributed nature of the communication. These are communications that are one to many: they’re not quite broadcast and yet not exactly conversational. They flood over a somewhat defined space.”

“maintaining ongoing background awareness of others”

SOCIAL OBJECTS (185-186)*****************
“you should begin by defining the type of activity that you want to encourage in your space. Do you want people to collect or share?”

“Once you have a handle on the type of activity you want to foster and its associated subactivities, it is important to define the type of social object around which this activity will revolve.”

“Social networks consist of people who are connected by a shared object.”

“Social objects are natural, not artificial. A successful social object is one that has layer upon layer of conversation created around it; as the number of participants increases, social objects enjoy network effects. Social objects are about participation and participants.”

Competitiveness Spectrum (156)
Levels (157)
Labels: not qualitative ranks but qualitative titles (163)
Bookmarklet (210)
Relationships Terminology (354)
Groups (376)
Face-to-Face Meeting (401)

November 24, 2011

Updated Bibliography: Work-NonWork & Time

Bibliography 11-23-2011
* Most important references in bold
Categories of References: Time, Work-NonWork, Design: New Media, Visualization, Interface etc., Embodiment



Aveni, Anthony F. 2002. Empires of time: calendars, clocks, and cultures. Rev. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

Borst, Arno. 1993. The ordering of time: from the ancient computus to the modern computer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

de Bourgoing, Jacqueline. 2001. The calendar : history, lore, and legend. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Clink, S, and J Newman. 2000. Recording the future: Some diagrammatic aspects of time management. In THEORY AND APPLICATION OF DIAGRAMS, PROCEEDINGS, ed. Anderson, M and Cheng, P and Haarslev, V, 1889:207-220. HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3, D-14197 BERLIN, GERMANY: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN.

Flaherty, Michael G. 1999. A watched pot: how we experience time. New York: New York University.

Freeman, Walter J. 2008. “Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action.” INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 42 (2) (June): 137-143. doi:10.1007/s12124-007-9049-0.

Ornstein, Robert E. 1975. On the experience of time. Oxford, England: Penguin.

Pastor, María A, and Julio Artieda. 1996. Time, internal clocks, and movement. Vol. 115. Amsterdam ; New York: Elsevier.

Richards, E G. 1998. Mapping time: the calendar and its history. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Rosenberg, Daniel, and Anthony Grafton. 2010. Cartographies of time. 1st ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Sanna, Lawrence J, and Edward C Chang. 2006. Judgments over time: the interplay of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Vohs, Kathleen D, and Brandon J Schmeichel. 2003. “Self-regulation and extended now: Controlling the self alters the subjective experience of time.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (2): 217-230. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.217.


Westrheim, Margo. 1993. Calendars of the world: a look at calendars & the ways we celebrate. Oxford, England: Oneworld.

Zerubavel, Eviatar. 1981. Hidden rhythms: schedules and calendars in social life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

———. 1985. The seven day circle: the history and meaning of the week. New York; London: Free Press; Collier Macmillan.



Bergman, Ann, and Jan Ch. Karlsson. 2011. “Three observations on work in the future.” WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY 25 (3) (September): 561-568. doi:10.1177/0950017011407974.

Boswell, Wendy R. 2007. “The use of communication technologies after hours: The role of work attitudes and work-life conflict.” JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT 33 (4) (August): 592-610. doi:10.1177/0149206307302552.

Brook, J A, and R J Brook. 1989. “Exploring the meaning of work and nonwork.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 10 (2): 169-178.

Clink, S, and J Newman. 2000. Recording the future: Some diagrammatic aspects of time management. In THEORY AND APPLICATION OF DIAGRAMS, PROCEEDINGS, ed. Anderson, M and Cheng, P and Haarslev, V, 1889:207-220. HEIDELBERGER PLATZ 3, D-14197 BERLIN, GERMANY: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN.

Csikszentmihalyi, M, and J LeFevre. 1989. “Optimal experience in work and leisure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (5): 815-822.

Van Dyne, L, E Kossek, and S Lobel. 2007. “Less need to be there: Cross-level effects of work practices that support work-life flexibility and enhance group processes and group-level OCB.” Human Relations 60 (8): 1123-1154. doi:10.1177/0018726707081657.

D’Abate, C P. 2005. “Working hard or hardly working: A study of individuals engaging in personal business on the job.” Human Relations 58 (8): 1009-1032. doi:10.1177/0018726705058501.

Elsbach, Kimberly D, and Andrew B Hargadon. 2006. “Enhancing Creativity Through ‘Mindless’ Work: A Framework of Workday Design.” Organization Science 17 (4): 470-483. doi:10.1287/orsc.1060.0193.

Fenner, G H, and R W Renn. 2009. “Technology-assisted supplemental work and work-to-family conflict: The role of instrumentality beliefs, organizational expectations and time management.” Human Relations 63 (1): 63-82. doi:10.1177/0018726709351064.

Golden, A G, and C Geisler. 2007. “Work-life boundary management and the personal digital assistant.” Human Relations 60 (3): 519-551. doi:10.1177/0018726707076698.

Greenhaus, Jeffrey H, and Gary N Powell. 2006. “WHEN WORK AND FAMILY ARE ALLIES : A THEORY OF WORK-FAMILY ENRICHMENT.” Academy of Management Review 31 (1): 72-92. doi:10.2307/20159186.

Jett, Q R, and J M George. 2003. “Work interrupted: A closer look at the role of interruptions in organizational life.” ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW 28 (3) (July): 494-507.

Kirchmeyer, Catherine. 1995. “MANAGING THE WORK NONWORK BOUNDARY – AN ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSES.” Human Relations 48 (5): 515-536.

Kreiner, G E, E C Hollensbe, and M L Sheep. 2009. “Balancing borders and bridges: Negotiating the work-home interface via boundary work tactics.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (4): 704-730.

Mirchandani, K. 1999. “Legitimizing work: Telework and the gendered reification of the work-nonwork dichotomy.” Canadian Review of Sociology and AnthropologyRevue Canadienne De Sociologie Et D Anthropologie 36 (1): 87-107.

Morris, Michael Lane, and Susan R Madsen. 2007. “Advancing Work-Life Integration in Individuals, Organizations, and Communities.” Advances in Developing Human Resources 9 (4): 439-454.

Raghuram, S, and B Wiesenfeld. 2004. “Work-nonwork conflict and job stress among virtual workers.” HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 43 (2-3): 259-277. doi:10.1002/hrm.20019.

Rice, Robert W, Michael R Frone, and Dean B McFarlin. 1992. “Work-nonwork conflict and their perceived quality of life.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13: 155-168.

Rousseau, D M. 1997. “Organizational behavior in the new organizational era.” Annual Review of Psychology 48 (1): 515-546.

Steers, Richard M, and Richard T Mowday. 2004. “THE FUTURE OF WORK MOTIVATION THEORY.” Academy of Management Review 29 (3): 379-387. doi:10.5465/amr.2004.13670978.

Thompson, J A, and J S Bunderson. 2001. “Work-Nonwork Conflict and the Phenomenology of Time: Beyond the Balance Metaphor.” Work and Occupations 28 (1): 17-39. doi:10.1177/0730888401028001003.

Youngblood, S A. 1984. “Work, nonwork, and withdrawal.” Journal of Applied Psychology 69: 106-117.



1942-Edward R Tufte. 1997. Visual explanations : images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press.

———. 2006. Envisioning information. Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press, 1990.

Bakker, Saskia, Alissa N. Antle, and Elise van den Hoven. 2011. “Embodied metaphors in tangible interaction design.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (June 12): 1-17-17. doi:10.1007/s00779-011-0410-4.

Dourish, Paul. 2001. Where the action is : the foundations of embodied interaction. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Hallnäs, Lars, and Johan Redström. 2001. “Slow Technology – Designing for Reflection.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 5 (3): 201-212. doi:10.1007/PL00000019.

Hansen, Mark B N. 2004. New Philosophy for New Media. Film Quarterly. Vol. 58. MIT Press. doi:10.1525/fq.2005.58.4.66.

Munster, Anna. 2006. Materializing new media : embodiment in information aesthetics. Dartmouth, N.H.: Dartmouth College Press : Published by University Press of New England.

O’Neill, Shaleph. 2008. Interactive media : the semiotics of embodied interaction. London: Springer.

Rosenberg, Daniel, and Anthony Grafton. 2010. Cartographies of time. 1st ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Townsend, Scott. 1998. “Unfolding the surface of information.” Design Issues 14 (3) (September): 5.


REFERENCES ABOUT EMBODIMENT (* Not a category which is as relevant now but could be later when I am exploring qualities of interaction)

Crawford, L E. 2009. “Conceptual Metaphors of Affect.” Emotion Review 1 (2): 129-139. doi:10.1177/1754073908100438.

Freeman, Walter J. 2008. “Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action.” INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 42 (2) (June): 137-143. doi:10.1007/s12124-007-9049-0.

Lucassen, Marcel P, Theo Gevers, and Arjan Gijsenij. 2010. “Texture affects color emotion.” Color Research Application 00 (0): n/a-n/a. doi:10.1002/col.20647.

Ping, Raedy M, Sonica Dhillon, and Sian L Beilock. 2009. “Reach For What You Like: The Body’s Role in Shaping Preferences.” Emotion Review 1 (2): 140-150. doi:10.1177/1754073908100439.



October 27, 2011

Possible Sources: The Future of Work

I have been reading about the work of Lynda Gratton and her investigations about the future of work. Below are some excerpts from a business magazine article. I will also be looking through her blog:

To better understand the future of work, from October 2009 to May 2010 I led a research consortium of 21 companies and over 200 executives from around the world.

My research and conversations about the future of work have led me to understand that the future will be less about general skills and more about in-depth mastery; less about working as a competitive, isolated individual and more about working collaboratively in a joined world; and less about focusing solely on a standard of living and more on the quality of experiences.

October 26, 2011

Possible Sources: Designing Futures

Stuart Candy: Experiential Scenarios

This conference: a futures-oriented public discussion process, called “Hawaii 2050” presented four examples of futurecasting scenarios. Instead of presenting videos or presentations- as we have in this studio, they created role plays of four possible futures.

All the conference attendees were broken up into four groups and participated in one of the four scenarios but were not informed as to which story they would experience.

Dunn & Raby: Design for debate

Bio notes from Innovations Forum

His work with Fiona Raby uses design as a medium to stimulate discussion and debate amongst designers, industry and the public about the social, cultural and ethical implications of existing and emerging technologies.

Blogger  notes on talks at Innovations forum: It’s not about making technologies more useful and beautiful but about trying to understand the social, cultural or ethical effects of these technologies.

Potential of design to help facilitate a debate about the kind of future we want and the kind of products and technologies we want. How are new technologies going to affect the way we live?

To engage with this, i guess design will have to evolve in different ways: new roles, new uses for design and also new methods to deal with that.

It’s not about trying to predict the future and get into forecasting but simply about trying to move upstream and not waiting for science to become technology and then products and then design at that level. It’s about trying to think about new possibilities while we are still at a scientific stage and design in a way that might facilitate a public discussion about what we want.

From Adobe Interview:
Critical design does not answer these questions, but it does provide a way for the questions to be asked.

October 21, 2011

Possible Sources: HCI Trends

HCI Trends
Contemporary Trends are juried and curated contributions that provoke, intrigue, and inspire the CHI audience. These submissions record the history of HCI practice and innovation outside of the scope of traditional archival papers.

October 4, 2011

Interruption as focus – Bibliography 1

Keywords: HCI, Tangible Computing, Smart Objects, Bio-feedback, Analog, Interface, New Media, Embodiment, Ambient Intelligence, Sensory cues: visual cues, auditory cues, tactile cues, haptic cues, olfactory cues

Bohn, J., Coroama, V., Langheinrich, M., Mattern, F., & Rohs, M. (2004). Living in a World of Smart Everyday Objects. Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment10(5), 763-786.         

Dourish, P. (2001). Where the action is : the foundations of embodied interaction. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Retrieved from

Hallnäs, L., & Redström, J. (2001). Slow Technology – Designing for Reflection. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing5(3), 201-212. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/PL00000019

Hansen  1965-, M. B. N. (Mark B. N. (2004). New philosophy for new media. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Retrieved from

Munster, A. (2006). Materializing new media : embodiment in information aesthetics. Dartmouth, N.H.: Dartmouth College Press : Published by University Press of New England. Retrieved from

Stephanidis, C. (2009). Designing for All in Ambient Intelligence Environments: The Interplay of User, Context, and Technology.International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction25(5), 441-454. Taylor & Francis Group. doi:10.1080/10447310902865032

Work Management/Balance
Keywords: Interruption, Work Environment, Creativity, Time Management, Internal and External Interruption, Holistic Workday, Work-Life Balance, Work related stress, Cognitive Overload, Reflection

Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. (M. S. Gazzaniga, Ed.)Science255(5044), 556-559. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1126/science.1736359

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,56(5), 815-822. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from

Elsbach, K. D. (2003). Relating Physical Environment to Self-Categorizations: Identity Threat and Affirmation in a Non-Territorial Office Space. Administrative Science Quarterly48(4), 622. Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University. doi:10.2307/3556639

Feldman, M. S., & Pentland, B. T. (2003). Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a Source of Flexibility and Change.Administrative Science Quarterly48(1), 94-118. Cornell University, Johnson Graduate School. doi:10.2307/3556620

Jett, Q. R., & George, J. M. (2003). Work interrupted: A closer look at the role of interruptions in organizational life. ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW28(3), 494-507. PACE UNIV, PO BOX 3020, 235 ELM RD, BRIARCLIFF MANOR, NY 10510-8020 USA: ACAD MANAGEMENT.

Kirsh, D. (2000). A Few Thoughts on Cognitive Overload. Intellectica1(30), 19-51. Citeseer. Retrieved from

Knight, C., & Haslam, S. A. (2010). Your Place or Mine? Organizational Identification and Comfort as Mediators of Relationships Between the Managerial Control of Workspace and Employees’ Satisfaction and Well-being. British Journal of Management21(3), 717-735. Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2009.00683.x

Kreiner, G. E., Hollensbe, E. C., & Sheep, M. L. (2009). Balancing borders and bridges: Negotiating the work-home interface via boundary work tactics. Academy of Management Journal52(4), 704-730. Academy of Management. Retrieved from

Vrijkotte, T. G., Van Doornen, L. J., & De Geus, E. J. (2000). Effects of work stress on ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Hypertension35(4), 880-886. Am Heart Assoc. Retrieved from